Data Services:General Overview

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General Overview of CEDAR Database

Also available, a printable version

Contents


B. A. Emery and R. M. Barnes
National Center for Atmospheric Research
Boulder, Colorado 80307
June, 1999

Introduction

Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) is a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) designed to enhance the capability of ground-based instruments to measure the upper atmosphere and to coordinate instrument and model data for the benefit of the scientific community. The CEDAR Database (formerly the Incoherent Scatter Radar Data Base) is a cooperative project between the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and several institutions that provide upper atmosphere data and model output for community use. In addition, the Database also contains material useful for analyzing these data: documentation, catalogue information, geophysical indices, summary plots, analysis software, and computer models. The purpose of the Database is to make data from these instruments and models readily accessible for scientific research by the entire scientific community. Figure 1 shows the locations of instruments that have data in the CEDAR Database.

Instr97c.gif

Figure 1 - Locations of instruments with data in the CEDAR Database as of June 1999. There are 9 incoherent scatter radar sites: Jicamarca, Arecibo, MU Shigaraki, Millstone Hill, St. Santin, Chatanika, Sondrestrom, EISCAT KST at Tromso and EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR). Five of these sites have Fabry-Perot Interferometers with data in the Database: Arequipa, Arecibo, Millstone, College and Sondre Stromfjord. Additional Fabry-Perots are located at Halley, Peach Mountain, Watson Lake and Thule. An IR Michelson Interferometer is located at Stockholm. An imager is also located at Millstone Hill. Eight SuperDARN HF radars are located at Halley, Syowa, Kapuskasing, Saskatoon, Goose Bay, Hankasalmi, Stokkseyri, and Pykkvibaer. Drift data are also available from digisondes at Qaanaaq and Sondre Stromfjord. There are 13 middle atmosphere radars: MST radars at Arecibo and Poker Flat; MF radars at Scott Base, Mawson, Christchurch, Adelaide, Saskatoon, and Tromsø; the LF radar at Collm; the Atlanta and Durham meteor wind radars; and the ST radars with Meteor Echo Detection And Collection (MEDAC) capabilities at Christmas Island and Platteville. Lidar data are also available for Arecibo, Urbana, Hawaii, and Ft. Collins.

The following section outlines the indices, model outputs and instruments that contribute to the Database, gives the 3-character name and instrument code number(s) (KINST) used by the Database in the computer files, contact people, links, suggested acknowledgements and references where required. The magnetic locations are in apex magnetic coordinates, which are similar to corrected geomagnetic coordinates, but are also defined at lower latitudes. Stations are ordered geographically south to north. An annual catalog is available in hard copy or at [/catalog/ you can click here].

CEDAR Database contact people

  • Barbara Emery - Tel (303) 497-1596; Fax (303) 497-1589; HAO/NCAR, P O Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307)

Data Holdings

The CEDAR Database contains only selected data from each instrument. Coordinated campaign periods, such as World Days, are particularly emphasized, although data collected on a regular basis or in clusters with other instruments is also valuable. Only small amounts of the data have been manually inspected to remove inevitable bad data values. In addition, the data are often subject to non-negligible errors arising from inaccurate assumptions or other uncertainties. The user is required to contact the data suppliers about the nature, quality and limitations of the data, and to offer co-authorship, which is often turned down. Acknowledgements of the instruments and of the CEDAR Database is required. (See [/catalog/Rules.html Rules of the Road].) The contact people can also provide information about additional data from each instrument that is not in the Database. In some cases, these additional holdings are substantial.

The CEDAR Database contains approximately 14 GB of data on the cedar computer at NCAR. The [#DBcoverage Coverage Table] shows the data currently available as the number of months per year with observations for each instrument/model between 1966 and 1999. The complete inventory listing is available on-line from anonymous ftp (ftp://ftp.hao.ucar.edu:122/archive/cedar/catprt.list) or via the web at [/documents/catprt.html catprt.html] or [/documents/catmad.html catmad.html]. Summary Plots are also available for all the data at [/instruments/cedarplots.html cedarplots.html].


Geophysical Indices

The CEDAR Database has some files of geophysical indices in Database format. At present, these include Dst, Kp, ap, Ap, solar 10.7 cm flux, sunspot number, AE indices, IMF parameters, solar wind parameters, hemispheric power input estimates from the NOAA satellites, and estimates of the magnetic latitude of the equatorward auroral boundary at midnight from DMSP satellites. Fortran access subroutines like GETNDCS, which are discussed in the [#apltd Plotting and Printing] section in the [#accdb Database Access] section of this catalogue are available which return specific values given input date and time. Most geophysical indices do not require acknowledgement of either the CEDAR Database or any contact person. Exceptions to this are estimates of the hemispheric power and the midnight equatorward auroral boundary, where references should be given and the CEDAR Database should be acknowledged if the values are taken from the Database.

imf (120) are Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and solar plasma data from various satellites. Hourly IMF and plasma data are available from 27 November 1963 to 31 December 1998, while 1 minute IMF data for World Day campaign periods are available from 13 April 1983 to 19 January 1988. Data are also available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at http://cdaweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/omniweb/ow.html, IMP-8 plasma data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) at ftp://space.mit.edu/pub/plasma/imp/www/imp.html, with real-time values available at ftp://gopher.sel.noaa.gov/pub/lists/wind through the Space Environment Center of NOAA in Boulder for the WIND satellite and at ftp://gopher.sel.noaa.gov/pub/lists/ace for the ACE satellite at the Lagrangian L1 point. Aside from the hourly data and the World Day 1 min IMF, data at higher time resolution usually contain data from within the magnetosheath and magnetotail as well as data in the solar wind. An exception to this is the ACE satellite since L1 is in front of the Earth's magnetosphere.

ehp (175) are estimates of the hemispheric power from the NOAA satellites from 2 November 1978 to 30 May 1999 with a gap between May 1988 and May 1991. The contact person for these data is David Evans (devans@sec.noaa.gov; Tel (303) 497-3269, FAX (303) 497-3645; SEC/NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303). The NOAA satellite hemispheric power estimates can be obtained at and plots of recently obtained electron precipitation data that are used to make the estimates can be found at <a href= gopher://solar.sec.noaa.gov:70/11/lists/hpi, and plots of recently obtained electron precipitation data that are used to make the estimates can be found at http://www.sec.noaa.gov/pmap. A reference to use is

Fuller-Rowell, T. J. and D. S. Evans, Height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivity patterns inferred from the TIROS-NOAA satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7606-7618, 1987.

eqb (180) are the "Air force Research Laboratory Auroral Boundary Index" estimates of the midnight equatorward boundary of the aurora from DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) satellites from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1998. The contact person for these data is M. Susan Gussenhoven (gussen@plh.af.mil; RL/VSBP, USAF Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, 29 Randolph Road, MA 01731-3010). The DMSP satellite estimates of the boundary index are also at http://www-vsbp.plh.af.mil/projects/dmsp/dmspssj4_midnit.html. Acknowledgements: The Air Force Research Laboratory Auroral Boundary Index was provided by the USAF Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA via the CEDAR Database. (Please send a courtesy copy of any publications using the boundary index to Dr. Gussenhoven.) Two references are

Gussenhoven, M. S., D. A. Hardy and W. J. Burke, DMSP/F2 electron observations of equatorward auroral boundaries and their relationship to magnetospheric electric fields, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 768-778, 1981.
Gussenhoven, M. S., D. A. Hardy and N. Heinemann, Systematics of the equatorward diffuse auroral boundary, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5692-5708, 1983.

gpi (210) are 3-h Kp and ap; daily sunspot numbers, 10.7 cm solar flux and Ap; and 81 day average 10.7 cm solar flux values from 1 January 1960 to 30 April 1999. These geophysical indices are also available for this period and for earlier years at the World Data Center in Boulder (Tel (303) 497-6475; National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), 325 Broadway, E/GC2, Boulder, CO 80303) or online at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/stp.html and via anonymous ftp at ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov in the directory /STP/GEOMAGNETIC_DATA/INDICES/KP_AP.

aei (211) are 1 minute and hourly values of the magnetic indices of AE, AL, AU and AO from 1 January 1978 to 30 June 1988. These are also available from the NGDC sources given above for gpi data. AE estimates are calculated in the AMIE technique if high latitude ground magnetometers are used. See [#dare AMIE output] and contact Barbara Emery (emery@ucar.edu) for the limited list of AMIE campaign dates.

dst (212) are hourly values of the ring current index Dst calculated from lower latitude ground magnetometers between 1 Janaury 1957 to 28 February 1999. Dst is also available with a 1-day lag from the World Data Center at the University of Kyoto at http://swdcdb.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dstdir.


Large Model Output

Various large models have output in the CEDAR Database, and much of the output is for generic conditions. The [#RORD Rules of the Road] for models are different from those for instrument data. All models should be referenced and if the model or outputs are taken from the CEDAR Database, the Database should be acknowledged. Users of the AMIE and TIGCM models must offer co-authorship and generally work closely with the modellers.

gcm (310) are outputs from the Thermosphere Ionosphere General Circulation Model (TIGCM) developed by Raymond Roble (roble@ucar.edu; Tel (303) 497-1562, FAX (303) 497-1589; HAO/NCAR, P. O. Box 3000; Boulder, CO 80307) and colleagues. The TIGCM model solves for the neutral and ion temperature and composition, and neutral winds on pressure surfaces between about 97 km and 550 km. Tidal motions in the neutral winds and temperatures were calculated by Cassandra Fesen (fesen@tides.utdallas.edu; Tel (972) 883-2815, FAX (972) 883-2761; Hanson Center for Space Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, POB 830688 MSF022, Richardson, TX 75083-0688). Several TIGCM results are available at http://www.hao.ucar.edu/public/research/tiso/tgcm/tgcm.html. A version of the TIGCM called the Thermosphere Ionosphere Nested Grid (TING) model is located at http://gandalf.engin.umich.edu with other Space Weather Aeronautical Response Models (SWARM). The ouputs for the TIIGCM in the CEDAR Database are:

a) March 22, 1979 TIGCM neutral and ion winds and temperatures on constant pressure surfaces between about 100 and 500 km every 5 degrees in longitude and latitude at every hour. b) Twelve TIGCM generic runs for neutral winds, temperatures, and tides. Neutral winds and temperatures are interpolated between 100 and 500 km every 15 degrees in longitude and every 5 degrees in latitude at every hour. A tidal analysis is done for the mean and the first 4 harmonics at 0 UT. There is a generic solar minimum (1976, 10.7 flux=75) and solar maximum (1979, 10.7 flux=195), three seasons (day numbers 80, 172, and 355), and two levels of magnetic activity parameterized with hemispheric power (GW) and polar cap potential drop (kV) (3GW/30kV and 11GW/60kV). c) Eighteen TIGCM generic runs for neutral winds, temperatures, and tides at 70W only. Same as above except has a third level of higher magnetic activity characterized by 33GW/90kV. 70W is not one of the 24 longitudes in the above runs.

Figure 2 shows the diurnal and semi-diurnal neutral winds and temperature at (42.5N, 70W) as derived from one of the (c) generic runs of the TIGCM.

Gcmtide.gif

Figure 2 - Mean neutral temperatures and horizontal winds at (42.5N, 70W) predicted by the NCAR TIGCM as a function of altitude for solar cycle minimum. Each panel shows the model predictions for three levels of geomagnetic activity (solid=low, dotted= medium, dashed= high).

The tides in the CEDAR Database are described in

Fesen, C. G., Geomagnetic activity effects on thermospheric tides: A compendium of theoretical predictions, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59, 785-803, 1997.
Fesen, C. G., R. G. Roble, and E. C. Ridley, Thermospheric tides simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere General Circulation Model at equinox, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 7805-7820, 1993.

General references for the TIGCM model and the older TGCM model

Dickinson, R.E., E.C. Ridley, and R.G. Roble, A three-dimensional general circulation model of the thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 1499-1512, 1981.
Roble, R.G., R.E. Dickinson, and E.C. Ridley, Global circulation and temperature structure of thermosphere with high-latitude plasma convection, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1599-1614, 1982.
Roble, R.G., E.C. Ridley, A.D. Richmond, and R.E. Dickinson, A coupled thermosphere/ionosphere general circulation model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 1325-1328, 1988.

The TIGCM and later models are available for community use for selected studies as described in the section on [#dthrmod Theoretical Models].

are (311) are output from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure developed by Arthur Richmond (richmond@ucar.edu; Tel (303) 497-1570, FAX (303) 497-1589; HAO/NCAR, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307) and colleagues. The AMIE procedure solves for the auroral energy flux and mean energy, the height integrated conductances, and the electric potential and currents at 110 km for specific periods using input data from radars, ground magnetometers, and satellites. Several AMIE results are available at [/cedarplots.html cedarplots.html] under 'Campaigns' or at http://www.hao.ucar.edu/public/research/tiso/amie/AMIE_head.html. The AMIE results in the CEDAR Database are:

a) January 18-19, 1984, electric fields and height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities between 50 and 90 degrees every two degrees in magnetic latitude and every hour in MLT, every 10 minutes in UT. b) September 23-26, 1986, electric fields, height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and auroral particle energy fluxes and mean electron energies between 50 and 90 degrees every two degrees in magnetic latitude and every hour in MLT, every 10 minutes in UT. c) January 12-16, 1988, Northern Hemisphere electric fields, height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and auroral particle energy fluxes and mean electron energies between 44 and 90 degrees every 2.0 degrees in magnetic latitude and every 60 min in MLT, using data from +/-15.5 min at times centered on DMSP-F08 passes in either hemisphere for Bz positive or small negative, or in the same hemisphere for large Bz negative. d) March 20-21, 1990, electric fields, height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and auroral particle energy fluxes and mean electron energies between 40 and 90 degrees every 1.7 degrees in magnetic latitude and every 40 min in MLT, every 5 minutes in UT. e) November 8-9, 1991, Northern Hemisphere electric fields, height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and auroral particle energy fluxes and mean electron energies between 44 and 90 degrees every 2.0 degrees in magnetic latitude and every 60 min in MLT, using data from +/-5.5 min every 10 minutes in UT. f) 27-29 January 27-29 1992, g) 28-29 March 1992 and h) 20-21 July 1992 Northern Hemisphere electric fields, height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and auroral particle energy fluxes and mean electron energies between 40 and 90 degrees every 1.7 degrees in magnetic latitude and every 40 min in MLT, using data from +/-3.5 min every 5 minutes in UT.

A reference for AMIE is

Richmond A.D., and Y. Kamide, Mapping electrodynamic features of the high-latitude ionosphere from localized observations: Technique, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5741-5759, 1988.

The AMIE code is available to those who are willing to spend the time learning how to use it as described in the section on [#dthrmod Theoretical Models].

sdt (320) are solar semi-diurnal tides calculated by Jeffrey Forbes (forbes@zeke.colorado.edu; Tel (303) 492-4359, FAX (303) 497-7881; Department of Aerospace and Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Campus Box 429, Boulder, CO 80309) and Francois Vial (vial@ondes.polytechnique.fr; Tel (33) 1-69-33-47-36 x4529, FAX (33) 1-69-33-30-05; LMD/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau CEDEX, France). The tides are independent of solar cycle, although the nominal year is 1988. There are monthly values every 2 degrees in latitude between 0 and 110 km of the harmonic analysis of the neutral horizontal winds, temperature and geopotential. A reference for these tides is

Forbes, J.M., and F. Vial, Monthly simulations of the solar semidiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 51, 649-661, 1989.

These tides were replaced by the solar semi-diurnal tides calculated by the GSWM described below.

sdl (321) are lunar semi-diurnal tides calculated by Francois Vial (vial@ondes.polytechnique.fr; Tel (33) 1-69-33-47-36 x4529, FAX (33) 1-69-33-30-05; LMD/CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau CEDEX, France). and Jeffrey Forbes (forbes@zeke.colorado.edu; Tel (303) 492-4359, FAX (303) 497-7881; Department of Aerospace and Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Campus Box 429, Boulder, CO 80309). The tides are independent of solar cycle with a nominal year of 1993. There are monthly values every 2 degrees in latitude between 78 and 102 km of the harmonic analysis of the neutral horizontal winds, temperature and geopotential. The reference for these tides is

Vial, F. and J. M. Forbes, Monthly simulations of the lunar semidiurnal tide, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 56, 1591-1607, 1994.

gsw (322) are solar diurnal and semi-diurnal tides calculated by the Global-Scale Wave Model (GWSM) developed by Maura Hagan (hagan@ucar.edu; Tel (303) 497-1537, FAX (303) 497-1589; HAO/NCAR, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307) and colleagues. More information and a later version of the model results can be found at http://www.hao.ucar.edu/public/research/tiso/gswm/gswm.html. Both ozone and water vapor forcing are included. The nominal year is 1995. There are values for January, April, July and October for every 3 degrees in latitude between 0 and 124 km of the harmonic analysis of the neutral horizontal and vertical winds, and temperature. The reference for these tides is

Hagan, M. E., J. M. Forbes, and F. Vial, On modeling migrating solar tides, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 893-896, 1995.

Incoherent Scatter Radar

For incoherent scatter radars (ISR), the primary data contained in the Database are ionospheric electron densities, ion velocities, and electron and ion temperatures. From these a wide variety of other parameters can be deduced or inferred. Basic parameters like electron density are those obtainable from a single measurement, at least in principle, with only minimal assumptions about characteristics of the medium. Derived parameters like the neutral temperature or the vector electric field require additional assumptions, such as an atmospheric density model or an assumption of smooth space/time continuity needed for combining different line-of-sight velocities. Depending on the mode of the experiment and the level of processing, the Database may have any combination of basic and derived parameters for any given radar observing period. Figure 3 shows the basic parameter of electron density shown as several profiles as a function of height above Arecibo, and compared with model estimates.

Aromod.gif

Figure 3 - Electron density profiles measured at Arecibo between 1725 UT and 1835 UT on September 18, 1974. The electron densities computed by the Chiu(C) and IRI(I) models from geophysical conditions present at the time are also plotted for comparison. The right-hand figure shows profiles of the neutral temperature at Arecibo for the time as determined by the IRI(I) and MSIS-86(M) models. These plots were produced with the routine PLTVSH.

Typically at least the electron density, line-of-sight ion velocity, and electron and ion temperatures are available. Some more advanced derived parameters are available, such as exospheric temperatures from St. Santin and some neutral meridional winds from Arecibo, Millstone Hill, and Sondrestrom. As part of the Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study (LTCS) campaigns, derived harmonic analyses of the ion temperature and neutral winds are available for E region altitudes from Arecibo, Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom. The IS/HF Daily Listing also includes an 'F' or 'D' if there are also Fabry-Perot or ion drift Digisonde data available for that site in the Database. General references for ISR are

Alcaydé, D., editor, Incoherent Scatter Theory, Practice and Science, Technical Report 97/53 from a collection of lectures given in Cargese, Corsica, 1995, EISCAT Scientific Association, 314 pp, November 1997.
Blanc, M., Electrodynamics of the ionosphere from incoherent scatter: A review, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 31, 137-164, 1979.
Evans, J.V., Theory and practice of ionosphere study by Thomson scatter radar, Proc. IEEE, 57, 496-530, 1969.
Evans, J.V., Incoherent scatter contributions to studies of the dynamics of the lower thermosphere, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 16, 195-216, 1978.
Evans, J.V., W.L. Oliver, Jr., and J.E. Salah, Thermospheric properties as deduced from incoherent scatter measurements, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 41, 259-278, 1979.

jro (10) are Jicamarca ISR data from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru (11.9S, 76.0W; 0.95 magN), which has operated since 1963. The contact person for data before March 1995 is Wesley Swartz (wes@ee.cornell.edu; Tel (607) 255-7120, FAX (607) 255-6236; School of Electrical Engineering, 316 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853). For ion drift data after March 1995 the contact is Erhan Kudeki (kudeki@uiuc.edu; Tel (217) 333-4153, FAX (217) 333-5624; Computer and Systems Research Lab, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801). The data are also available at http://sky.ece.uiuc.edu/jro-isr. The contact for recent Farady rotation data is David Hysell (daveh@vlasov.phys.clemson.edu; Tel (864) 656-4349, FAX (864) 656-0805; Dept. of Physics, Clemson University, 205 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson, SC 29634), with a web site at http://landau.phys.clemson.edu/faraday/faraday.html. Faraday rotation data determine the electron density and the ion and electron temperatures. Acknowledgements: The Jicamarca Radio Observatory is operated by the Geophysical Institute of Peru, Ministry of Education, with support from the National Science Foundation as contracted through Cornell University.

aro (20) are Arecibo ISR data from the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center in Arecibo, Puerto Rico (18.3N, 66.75W; 29.0 magN). The radar has been in operation since 1963. The contact person is Qihou Zhou (zhou@naic.edu; Tel (809) 878-2612, FAX (809) 878-1861; Arecibo Observatory, PO Box 995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612). A description of the site is at http://naic.edu/. Acknowledgements: The Arecibo Observatory is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

mui (25) are ISR data from the Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU) radar operating since 1986 from Shigaraki, Japan (34.8N, 136.1E; 27.3 magN). A description of the site and sample results from various studies can be found at http://www.kurasc.kyoto-u.ac.jp/index-e.html. The contact person is Shoichiro Fukao (fukao@kurasc.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tel (81) 774-33-5343, FAX (81) 774-31-8463; Radio Atmospheric Science Center, Kyoto University, Gokanosyo, Uji, Kyoto 611, Japan). Acknowledgements: The MU radar belongs to and is operated by the Radio Atmospheric Science Center of Kyoto University.

mlh (30, 31, 32) are ISR data from the fixed zenith antenna (32), the steerable antenna (31) or either (30) at Millstone Hill (42.6N 71.5W; 53.1 magN). Millstone is located at Haystack Observatory and has been operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1960. Many different scan plots for data in the CEDAR Database and for further data at Millstone Hill can be accessed at http://www.haystack.edu/cgi-bin/holdings. A description of the MIT/SRI/EISCAT Telescience Initiative is at http://www.haystack.edu/telescience/. The CEDAR Database contact person is John Holt (jmh@haystack.mit.edu; Tel (781) 981-5625, FAX (781) 981-5766; MIT Haystack Observatory, Off Route 40, Westford, MA 01886). Acknowledgements: The Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar is supported by the National Science Foundation.

sts (40, 41, 42, 43) are ISR data from the quadristatic system in France operating between 1963 and 1987. The transmitter was located at St. Santin (40) (44.6N, 2.2E; 39.5 magN), with receivers at Nancay (41) (47.4N, 2.2E; 42.9 magN), at Mende (42) (44.5N, 3.45E; 39.3 magN) and at Monpazier (43) (44.7N, 0.8E; 39.7 magN). The contact person is Christine Amory-Mazaudier (mazaudier@cetp.ipsl.fr; Tel (33) 1 48 86 1263 x3378, FAX (33) 1 48 89 4433; CRPE, 4 avenue de Neptune, 94107 Saint-Maur CEDEX, France). Acknowledgements: The extension of the CNET (Centre National d'Etudes des Télécommunications) incoherent scatter facility at St.-Santin to a quadristatic configuration was supported by the Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique and by the Direction des Recherches et Moyens d'Essais. The facility is operated with financial support from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

cht (50) are ISR data from the Chatanika radar in Alaska (65.1N, 147.4W; 65.1 magN) that was operated by SRI International between 1971 and 1982. The radar was then moved to Sondrestrom, Greenland. The contact person is John Kelly (kelly@sri.com; Tel (415) 859-3749, FAX (415) 322-2318; Geoscience and Engineering Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025). Acknowledgements: The Chatanika incoherent scatter radar was supported by the National Science Foundation.

eis (70, 71, 72, 73, 74) are ISR data from the tristatic EISCAT (70) (European Incoherent SCATter) KST (Kiruna, Sodankylä and Tromsø) system in Scandinavia in operation since 1981. The transmitter and one receiver are located in Tromsø, Norway (72) (69.58N, 19.23E; 66.4 magN); another receiver is located in Kiruna, Sweden (71) (67.87N, 20.43E; 64.6 magN); and the final receiver is located in Sodankylä, Finland (73) (67.37N, 26.63W; 63.8 magN). These are UHF receivers. There is another VHF receiver in Tromsø (74). Plots for all the World Day campaigns, which are also in the CEDAR Database, in addition to other data are available at http://www.eiscat.uit.no/. The Grenoble EISCAT Database can be accessed at http://www-eiscat.cephag.inpg.fr. EISCAT is also involved in the MIT/SRI/EISCAT Telescience Initiative listed above. The CEDAR Database contact person is Peter Collis (peter@eiscathq.irf.se; Tel (46) 980-70160, FAX (46) 980-76161; EISCAT Scientific Association, Box 812, S-981 28 Kiruna, Sweden). For the acknowlegements, it is sufficient to abbreviate the scientific organizations. They are spelled out here for completeness. Acknowledgements: We are indebted to the Director and staff of EISCAT for operating the EISCAT KST facility and supplying the data. EISCAT is an international association supported by Finland (SA, Suomen Akatemia), France (CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), Germany (MPG, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft), Japan (NIPR, National Institute for Polar Research), Norway (NFR, Norges forskningsråd) Sweden (NFR, Naturvetenskapliga forskningsrådet) and the United Kingdom (PPARC, Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council).

son (80) are ISR data from the Sondrestrom radar at Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (67.0N, 51.0W; 73.3 magN). This radar was moved from Chatanika by SRI International and has been operating since 1983. A link to the operations schedule, list of archived data, and some data example displays is located at http://isr.sri.com/iono/issradar.html. The contact person is John Kelly (kelly@sri.com; Tel (415) 859-3749, FAX (415) 322-2318; Geoscience and Engineering Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025). Acknowledgements: The Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar is supported by the National Science Foundation.

esr (95) are ISR data from the transmitter and receiver of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.15N, 16.05E; 75.0 magN), which has been operational since 1996. The contact person is Tony van Eyken (tony@eiscat.no; Tel (47) 776-92166, FAX (47) 776-92380; EISCAT Scientific Association, N-9170 Longyearbyen, Norway). The acknowlegements are nearly identical to those for the EISCAT KST radar. Acknowledgements: We are indebted to the Director and staff of EISCAT for operating the EISCAT Svalbard Radar facility and supplying the data. EISCAT is an international association supported by Finland (SA, Suomen Akatemia), France (CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), Germany (MPG, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft), Japan (NIPR, National Institute for Polar Research), Norway (NFR, Norges forskningsråd) Sweden (NFR, Naturvetenskapliga forskningsrådet) and the United Kingdom (PPARC, Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council).


Ionospheric Doppler Radars

The HF ionospheric doppler radars are organized into a community called SuperDARN. Eight of these radars have data in the CEDAR Database. The basic parameters are the line-of-sight plasma irregularity velocity and velocity spread. The former is assumed to be equal to the ion velocity. In general, very little HF data are in the CEDAR Database, but can be obtained from the contact people. The IS/HF Daily Listing lists what HF campaign data is in the CEDAR Database. The major SuperDARN link is http://superdarn.jhuapl.edu. Plots of data from Goose Bay, Kapuskasing, Saskatoon and Stokkseyri are available at http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/RADAR/radar/online/index.html, with links to plots for the Antarctic radars at Halley and Syowa at http://bsauasc.nerc-bas.ac.uk:8080/~pdata/Catalog.html, and for the CUTLASS radars of Hankasalmi and Pykkvibaer at http://ion.le.ac.uk/cutlass/summary_plot_choose.html. References for HF radars are

Greenwald, R. A., K. B. Baker, R. A. Hutchins, and C. Hanuise, An HF phased-array radar for studying small-scale structure in the high-latitude ionosphere, Radio Sci., 20, 63-79, 1985.
Greenwald, R. A. et al., DARN/SUPERDARN, a global view of the dynamics of high-latitude convecton, Space Science Reviews, 71, 761-796, 1995.
Ruohoniemi, J. M., R. A. Greenwald, K. B. Baker, and J. P. Villain, Drift motions of small-scale irregularities in the high-latitude F region: An experimental comparison with plasma drift motions, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4553-4564, 1987.


hhf (820) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Halley, Antarctica (75.5S, 26.6W; 61.5 magS). Halley is run by the British Antactic Survey and has been in operation since 1987. Its coordinates change slightly because it floats on an ice shelf and has to be moved sometimes. The Database contains data from 6 campaigns between 1990 and 1995. The contact person is Michael Pinnock (mpi@pcmail.nerc-bas.ac.uk; Tel (44) 223-251534, FAX (44) 223-62616; British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, United Kingdom). Acknowledgements: The Halley HF radar is jointly supported by the British Antarctic Survey, which is part of the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council, and the National Science Foundation Division of Polar Programs.

syf (830) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Syowa, Antarctica (69.02S, 39.56E; 64.9 magN), operated by the National Institute of Polar Research in Japan since 1995. Data for one campaign in 1995 are currently in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Natsuo Sato (nsato@nipr.ac.jp; (Tel: (81) 3-3962-4711, Fax: (81) 3-3962-5742; National Institute of Polar Res., 9-10 Kaga 1-Chome, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173, Japan) Acknowledgements: The Syowa Station HF radar is operated by the National Institute of Polar Research in Japan.

khf (845) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Kapuskasing, Canada (49.39N, 82.32W; 60.5 magN), operated by the Applied Physics Lab since 1993. Data for 19 campaigns since 1993 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Michael Ruohoniemi (ruohoniemi@jhuapl.edu; Tel: (301) 953-5000 x4572, Fax: (301) 953-1093; Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099). Acknowledgements: The Kapuskasing HF radar is operated by the Applied Physics Laboratory of The Johns Hopkins University with support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

shf (861) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Saskatoon, Canada (52.16N, 106.53W; 60.9 magN), operated by the University of Saskatchewan since 1993. Data for 19 campaigns since 1993 are currently in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is George Sofko (sofko@skisas.usask.ca; Tel: (306) 966-6444, Fax: (306) 966-6400; Inst of Space & Atmos Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0W0, Canada). Acknowledgements: The Saskatoon HF radar is operated by the University of Saskatchewan with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

gbf (870) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Goose Bay, Canada (53.32N, 60.46W; 61.7 magN), operated by the Applied Physics Lab since 1993. Data for 30 campaigns since 1988 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Michael Ruohoniemi (ruohoniemi@jhuapl.edu; Tel: (301) 953-5000 x4572, Fax: (301) 953-1093; Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099). Acknowledgements: The Goose Bay HF radar is operated by the Applied Physics Laboratory of The Johns Hopkins University with support from the National Science Foundation.

fhf (900) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Hankasalmi, Finland (62.32N, 26.61E; 58.6 magN). Hankasalmi has been operated by the University of Leicester since 1995. Data for 11 campaigns since 1995 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Mark Lester (mle@ion.le.ac.uk; Tel (44) 0116-252-3580, FAX (44) 0116-252-3555; Radio and Space Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom). Acknowledgements: The CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) radars form part of the SuperDARN (Dual Auroral Radar Network) HF project and consist of radars at Hankasalmi, Finland and Pykkvibaer, Iceland. They are operated by the Radio and Space Plasma Physics Group at the University of Leicester with support from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Council, and additional support from the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Swedish Meteorological Institute.

whf (910) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Stokkseyri, Iceland (63.86N, 22.02W; 64.8 magN), Stokkseyri has been operated by CNRS, France since 1994. Data for 15 campaigns since 1995 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Jean-Paul Villain (jvillain@cnrs-orleans.fr; Tel: (33) 38-515-28, Fax: (33) 38-631-234; LPCE/CNR, 3A Avenue de la Recherch, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, France). Acknowledgements: The Stokkseyri HF radar is operated by CNRS/LPCE (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/ Laboratoire de Physique Chimie de l'Environnement) and CNRS/CETP (Centre d'etudes des Environnements Terrestre et Planetaires) with support from the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers.

ehf (911) are HF data from the SuperDARN station at Pykkvibaer, Iceland (63.86N, 19.20E; 64.4 magN). Pykkvibaer has been operated by the University of Leicester since 1996. Data for 10 campaigns since 1996 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Mark Lester (mle@ion.le.ac.uk; Tel (44) 0116-252-3580, FAX (44) 0116-252-3555; Radio and Space Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom). Acknowledgements: The CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) radars form part of the SuperDARN (Dual Auroral Radar Network) HF project and consist of radars at Hankasalmi, Finland and Pykkvibaer, Iceland. They are operated by the Radio and Space Plasma Physics Group at the University of Leicester with support from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Council, and additional support from the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Swedish Meteorological Institute.


Digisondes

Ion drift data from the Qaanaaq and Sondre Stromfjord Digisondes are available for most days in 1993, with Qaanaaq data also available in 1989. The velocity vector is a derived parameter from a least-squares fit of a Fourier analysis of scattering from many irregularities in the F region of the ionosphere. A link describing digisondes, the world-wide network, and recent ionosonde plots from the Digisonde at Millstone Hill is http://ulcar.uml.edu. References are

Bibl, K. and B. W. Reinisch, The universal digital ionosonde, Radio Sci., 13, 519-530, 1978.
Scali, J. L., B. W. Reinisch, C. J. Heinselman and T. W. Bullett, Coordinate Digisonde and incoherent scatter radar F region drift measurements at Sondre Stromfjord, Radio Sci., 30, 1481-1498, 1995.

ssd (2890) are ionosonde drift data from the station at Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (67.00N, 309.05E; 73.3 magN), which has been operating since 1986. The contact person is Bodo Reinisch (bodo_reinisch@uml.edu; Tel (978) 934-4903, FAX (978) 459-7915; Center for Atmospheric Research, 600 Suffolk St, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854). Acknowledgements: The Sondre Stromfjord Digisonde is owned and operated by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Hanscom Air Force Base. The data is analyzed, processed and supplied by the University of Massachusetts Lowell Center for Atmospheric Research under contract with AFRL.

qad (2930) are ionosonde drift data from the station at Qaanaaq, Greenland (77.5N, 69.4W; 85.6 magN), which has been operating since 1983. The contact person is Bodo Reinisch (bodo_reinisch@uml.edu; Tel (978) 934-4903, FAX (978) 459-7915; Center for Atmospheric Research, 600 Suffolk St, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854). Acknowledgements: The Qaanaaq Digisonde is owned and operated by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Hanscom Air Force Base. The data is analyzed, processed and supplied by the University of Massachusetts Lowell Center for Atmospheric Research under contract with AFRL.


Fabry-Perot Interferometers

The basic parameters for Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) are brightness (often uncalibrated), neutral temperature, and line-of-sight neutral winds. Derived parameters are vector neutral winds. Of the 9 Fabry-Perots in the CEDAR Database, 8 use the measurements at 630 nm, and so are a measure of conditions around 250-300 km. Only Peach Mountain has measurements at 557.7 nm around 97 km (+/-10-15km) and OH (892 nm) measurements around 86 km. The Interferometer Daily Listing shows all the data from the Fabry-Perot and Michelson Interferometers in the CEDAR Database. Arequipa is listed as well, although only monthly averaged quiet-time winds have been submitted to the Database. A 'D' in the list indicates that there are also ion drift Digisonde data available for that site in the Database. References are

Hernandez, G., Fabry-Perot Interferometers, Cambridge University Press, 343 pp, 1986.
Jacka, F., Application of Fabry-Perot spectrometers for measurement of upper atmosphere temperatures and winds, Handbook for MAP, Vol. 13, 19-40, 1984.

hfp (5020) are FPI red line data from Halley, Antarctica (75.5S, 26.6W; -61.5 magN), which has been operated by the British Antarctic Survey since 1988. Data from 1988-1993 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Matthew Paley (mtpa@pcmail.nerc-bas.ac.uk; Tel: (44) 223-251532, Fax: (44) 223-62616; British Antarctic Survey, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, United Kingdom). Acknowledgements: The Halley Fabry-Perot Interferometer is operated by the British Antarctic Survey which is part of the United Kingdom's Natural Environment Research Council.

aqf (5140) are monthly averages of FPI red line data from Arequipa, Peru (16.5S, 71.5W; -3.4 magN), which has been operated by the University of Pittsburg since 1988. Monthly averaged data from 1983-1990 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Manfred Biondi (biondi+@pitt.edu; Tel: (412) 624-9287, Fax: (412) 624-9163; Dept. Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260). Acknowledgements: The Arequipa Automated Airglow Observatory is operated by the University of Pittsburgh with support from the National Science Foundation. Space and on-site technical support are provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

afp (5160) are FPI red line data from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (18.35N, 66.75W; 29.1 magN), which has been operated by Cornell University since 1972. Data from 1980-1998 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Craig Tepley (craig@naic.edu; Tel: (809) 878-2612, Fax: (809) 878-1861; Arecibo Observatory, P.O. Box 995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612). Acknowledgements: The Arecibo Observatory is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

pfp (5300) are FPI green line and OH data from Peach Mountain, USA (42.4N, 86.93W; 53.6 magN), which has been operated intermittantly by the University of Michigan since 1989. Data from May 1993 through March 1994 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Rick Niciejewski (niciejew@umich.edu; Tel: (313) 747-3445, Fax: (313) 763-5567; Space Physics Laboratory, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Acknowledgements: The Peach Mountain Fabry-Perot was built with funds from the College of Engineering of the University of Michigan, and is supported by funding from the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

mfp (5340) are FPI red line data from Millstone Hill, USA (42.6N, 71.5W; 53.1 magN), which has been operated by the MIT Haystack Observatory since 1986. Data from 1989-1997 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Dwight Sipler (dps@haystack.mit.edu; Tel: (781) 981-5626, Fax: (781) 981-0590; MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886). Acknowledgements: The Millstone Hill Fabry-Perot is supported by the National Science Foundation.

wfp (5430) are FPI red line data from Watson Lake, Canada (60.06N, 128.58W; 64.1 magN), which was operated by the University of Michigan between 1991 and 1993, before it was moved to Carmen Alto, Chile. Data from November 1991 through April 1992 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Rick Niciejewski (niciejew@umich.edu; Tel: (313) 747-3445, Fax: (313) 763-5567; Space Physics Laboratory, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Acknowledgements: The Watson Lake Fabry-Perot is operated by the University of Michigan with support from the National Science Foundation and the United States Air Force.

cfp (5460) are FPI red line data from College, USA (64.7N, 148.1W; 64.6 magN), which was operated by the University of Atlaska from 1981-1986. Data between March 1981 and April 1983 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Robert Sica (sica@uwo.ca; Tel: (519) 679-2111 x6509, Fax: (519) 661-2033; Department of Physics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, CANADA). Acknowledgements: The College Fabry-Perot was operated by the University of Alaska with support from the National Science Foundation.

sfp (5480) are FPI red line data from Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (66.99N, 50.95W; 73.3 magN), which was operated by the University of Michigan between 1983 and 1994. Data from 1983-1994 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Rick Niciejewski (niciejew@umich.edu; Tel: (313) 747-3445, Fax: (313) 763-5567; Space Physics Laboratory, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Acknowledgements: The Sondre Stromfjord Fabry-Perot is operated by the University of Michigan with support from the National Science Foundation.

tfp (5540) are FPI red line data from Thule (Qaanaaq), Greenland (76.53N, 68.44W; 84.6 magN), which was operated intermittantly by the University of Michigan between 1984 and 1994. Data between September 1987 and March 1989 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Rick Niciejewski (niciejew@umich.edu; Tel: (313) 747-3445, Fax: (313) 763-5567; Space Physics Laboratory, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109). Acknowledgements: The Thule Fabry-Perot is operated by the University of Michigan with support from the National Science Foundation and from the Air Force Research Laboratory, which is operated by the United States Air Force. Former names for the Air Force Research Laboratory are: Phillips Laboratory, Geophysics Laboratory, and the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory.


IR Michelson Interferometers

Neutral temperatures around 86 km derived from nightglow hydroxyl OH (892 nm) measurements are also available from the IR Michelson Interferometer located in Stockholm. The other basic parameter is brightness. The IR Michelson Interferometer data are listed in the Interferometer Daily Listing along with the Fabry-Perot Interferometers. A reference for the Michelson Interferometer is

Espy, P. J., W. R. Pendleton, Jr., G. G. Sivjee and M. P. Fetrow, Vibrational development of the N2+ Meinel band system in the aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 11,257-11,261, 1987.


stm (5860) are OH data from Stockholm, Sweden (59.5N, 18.2E; 55.8 magN), which has been operated by the University of Utah and Stockholm University since 1991. Data between May 1993 and December 1994 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Patrick Espy (sdlpespy@cc.usu.edu; Tel: (801) 797-3570, Fax: (801) 797-4044; Space Dynamics Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-4145). Acknowledgements: The Stockholm IR Michelson Interferometer is operated by the Utah State University and the Meteorological Institute of Stockholm University with support from the National Science Foundation and the University of Stockholm.


Lidar

The Lidar basic parameters are photocounts, relative neutral number density, and sodium or iron density depending on the wavelength used. Neutral temperature and winds can be derived from the Lidar. Temperatures are available in the Database for Ft. Collins but winds are not available. Six articles in a special issue on LIDAR applications are located in

Proceedings of the IEEE, 77, pp. 408-490, March, 1989.

uil (6300) are Rayleigh/sodium and iron lidar data taken with the University of Illinois lidar. The sodium lidar operated in January-April, 1989 during the AIDA campaign at Arecibo (18.35N, 66.75W; 29.1 magN) and flew in a plane over Hawaii (20N, 155W; 20.6 magN) during the ALOHA'90 campaign in March and April. The iron lidar was operating at Urbana, Illinois (40.1N, 88.1W; 51.2 magN) during October 1989 and March 1991 to August 1992. Dates of lidar data in the CEDAR Database are located in the University of Illinois Lidar Listing. The University of Illinois lidar and imager site is http://conrad.ece.uiuc.edu/, and shows plots from special campaigns like ALOHA'93 and the Starfire Optical Range. The contact person is Chester Gardner (cgardner@uiuc.edu; Tel (217) 333-4682, FAX (217) 333-4303; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 315 CSRL, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801-2307). Acknowledgements: The University of Illinois CEDAR lidar is operated by the University of Illinois with support from the National Science Foundation.

csl (6320) are sodium lidar data taken with the Colorado State University lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado (40.59N, 105.14W; 49.5 magN). The lidar first operated in 1990, and data for 1993 are in the CEDAR Database. The dates are listed in the Colorado State University Lidar Listing. The contact person is Chiao-Yao She (joeshe@lamar.colostate.edu; Tel (970) 491-7947, FAX (970) 491-6261; Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523). A web site is located at http://lamar.colostate.edu/~lidar. Acknowledgements: The Colorado State University sodium lidar is operated by the Colorado State University with support from the National Science Foundation.


Middle Atmosphere Radars

Middle atmosphere radars include MST radars, MF radars (partial reflection), LF radars, meteor wind radars and ST radars with MEDAC (Meteor Echo Detection And Collection) systems. The MLT Monthly Listing lists the months that MLT data is available in the CEDAR Database. Seven of the 13 MLT radars have only limited campaign data in the Data Base, so much more data are available from the contact persons.

MST Radars

The Arecibo and Poker Flat MST radars measure the basic parameters of the line-of-sight neutral winds and a measure of the turbulence (spectral width or velocity spread). Arecibo has high resolution measurements between 6 and 21 km, while Poker Flat hourly averages are between approximately 5 and 120 km, with a gap between about 30 and 50 km. References for MST radars are

Balsley, B.B., W.L. Ecklund, D.A. Carter, and P.E. Johnson, The MST radar at Poker Flat, Alaska, Radio Sci., 15, 213-223, 1980.
Hardy, K.R. and K.S. Gage, The history of radar studies of the clear atmosphere, chapter 17 of Radar in Meteorology, editor D. Atlas, Am. Meteorological Soc., Boston, 130-142, 1990.
Rottger, J., The MST radar technique, Handbook for MAP, Vol. 13, 187-232, 1984.

arm (1040) are MST data from the March-May 1989 AIDA campaign at Arecibo, Puerto Rico (18.35N, 66.75W; 29.1 magN). Arecibo MST Radar was operated by Cornell University since 1979. Data from 1989 is currently in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Qihou Zhou (zhou@naic.edu; Tel (809) 878-2612, FAX (809) 878-1861; Arecibo Observatory, PO Box 995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612). Acknowledgements: The Arecibo Observatory is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

pkr (1140) are MST data from Poker Flat, Alaska (65.13N,147.46W; 65.2 magN). Poker Flat was operated between 1979 and 1985 by the Aeronomy Laboratory at NOAA in Boulder. This is the data that is currently in the CEDAR Database. The University of Alaska then operated Poker Flat from 1985 to 1987, after which it was torn down. The contact person is David Carter (dcarter@al.noaa.gov; Tel (303) 497-5476, FAX (303) 497-5373; NOAA Aeronomy Lab, Mail Stop R/E/AL3, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303). Acknowledgements: The Poker Flat MST radar was operated by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Aeronomy Laboratory with support from the National Science Foundation.

MF Radars

The neutral wind data from the MF, LF and meteor wind radars in the Data Base are averaged over several days and analyzed in terms of harmonics. Derived parameters of the harmonic analyses of the neutral winds are available for LTCS-1 (Sep 21-25, 1987), LTCS-2 (Dec 4-10, 1988), LTCS-3 (May 30 - June 4, 1989), and LTCS-4 (Feb 12- 17, 1990) from most of these radars, and several radars have years of data in the CEDAR Database. References for MF radars are

Briggs, B. H., The analysis of spaced sensor records by correlation techniques, Handbook for Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 13, 166-186, 1984.
Fraser, G. J., Partial-reflection spaced antenna wind measurements, Chapter 15 of Ground-based techniques, Handbook for Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 13, 233-247, 1984.
Gregory, J. B., C. E. Meek, A. H. Manson and D. G. Stephenson, Developments in the radiowave drifts technique for measurement of high-altitude winds, J. Applied Met., 18, 682-691, 1979.
Meek, C. E., An efficient method for analysing ionospheric drifts data, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 42, 835-839, 1980.

sbf (1210) are MF radar data from Scott Base, Antarctica (77.85S, 166.75E; -74.5 magN), operated since 1982 by the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Data from LTCS-2, 3 and 4 are currently in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Grahame Fraser (g.fraser@csc.canterbury.ac.nz; Tel: (64) 3-642-581, Fax: (64) 3-642-999; Physics Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand). Acknowledgements: The Scott Base MF radar is operated by the University of Canterbury Physics Department with support from the New Zealand University Grants Committee and the New Zealand Antarctic Research Programme.

maf (1220) are MF radar data from Mawson, Antarctica (67.62S, 62.89E; -70.2 magN), operated by University of Adelaide since 1984. Data from June 1984 to November 1990 are in the CEDAR Database along with data from LTCS-1 and 3. The contact person is Robert Vincent (rvincent@physics.adelaide.edu.au; Tel: (61) 8-303-5758, Fax: (64) 8-224-0464; Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5001, Australia. Acknowledgements: The Mawson MF radar is operated by the Atmospheric Physics Group, University of Adelaide with support from the Australian Research Council. Logistical support is provided by the Australian Antarctic Division.

ccf (1230) are MF radar data from Christchurch, New Zealand (43.83S, 172.68E; -50.4 magN), operated by the University of Canterbury, New Zealand since 1962 (with gaps). Data from LTCS-1 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Grahame Fraser (g.fraser@csc.canterbury.ac.nz; Tel: (64) 3-642-581, Fax: (64) 3-642-999; Physics Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand). Acknowledgements: The Christchurch MF radar is operated by the University of Canterbury Physics Department with support from the New Zealand University Grants Committee.

adf (1240) are MF radar data from Adelaide, Australia (34.56S, 138.48E; -45.9 magN), operated by University of Adelaide since 1983. Data from LTCS-1, 2 and 3 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Robert Vincent (rvincent@physics.adelaide.edu.au; Tel: (61) 8-303-5758, Fax: (64) 8-224-0464; Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5001, Australia). Acknowledgements: The Adelaide MF radar is operated by the Atmospheric Physics Group, University of Adelaide with support from the Australian Research Council.

saf (1340) are MF radar data from Saskatoon, Canada (52.21N, 107.11W; 60.9 magN), operated by University of Saskatchewan since 1978. Data from LTCS-1, 2, 3 and 4 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Alan Manson (manson@skisas.usask.ca; Tel: (306) 966-644, Fax: (306) 966-6400; Inst of Space and Atmos Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). Acknowledgements: The Saskatoon HF radar is operated by the University of Saskatchewan with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

trf (1390) are MF radar data from Tromsø, Norway (69.60N, 19.2E; 66.5 magN), operated the University of Tromsø and University of Saskatchewan since 1987. Data from LTCS-1, 2, 3 and 4 are in the CEDAR Database. The contact people are Chris Hall (for radar) (Tel: (47) 83-44000, Fax: (47) 83-89852, Inst of Math & Physical Sci, University of Tromsø, Norway) and Alan Manson (for winds) (manson@skisas.usask.ca; Tel: (306) 966-644, Fax: (306) 966-6400; Inst of Space and Atmos Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). Acknowledgements: The Tromsø MF radar is operated by the University of Tromsø (Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences) and the University of Saskatchewan (Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies) with support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

LF Radars

A reference for LF radars is

Schminder, R. and D. Kurschner, D1 LF wind measurements in the 90 to 100 km height range, Handbook for Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 13, 248-261, 1984.

cof (1320) are LF radar data from Collm, Germany (52N, 15E; 47.7 magN), which has been operated by the University of Leipzig since 1956. Data since 1993 are available at the CEDAR Database. Climatological plots are available at http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~gasse/geo, and further data can be requested. The contact person is Christoph Jacobi (jacobi@rz.uni-leipzig.de; Tel (49) 341-9732876, FAX (49) 341-9732899; Institute of Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany). Acknowledgements: The Collm LF windprofiler is operated by the University of Leipzig (Institute of Meteorology, Collm Geophysical Observatory).

Meteor Wind Radars

References for meteor wind radars are

Avery, S. K., J. P. Avery, and T. A. Valentic, A new meteor echo detection and collection system: Christmas Island mesospheric winds measurements, Radio Sci., 25, 657-670, 1990.
Groves, G. V., A theory for determining upper atmosphere winds from radar observations on meteor trails, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 16, 344-356, 1959.
McKinley, D. W. R., Meteor Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1961.
Roper, R. G., MWR - Meteor Wind Radars, Handbook for Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 13, 124-134, 1984.

cia (2090) are ST with MEDAC radar data from Christmas Island (1.95N, 157.3W; 3.0 magN), which has been operated by the University of Colorado since 1988. Data between September 1988 and August 1989, and between January and November 1990 are in the CEDAR Database, but will be revised. LTCS-2 and 3 data are also available. The contact person is Susan Avery (susan.avery@colorado.edu; Tel (303)492-7427, FAX (303)492-2199; University of Colorado, Campus Box 425, Boulder, CO 80309). Acknowledgements: The Christmas Island ST radar is operated by NOAA's Aeronomy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. The MEDAC system is operated by the University of Colorado with support from the National Science Foundation.

atm (1560) are meteor wind radar data from Atlanta, USA (34N, 84W; 45.4 magN), which has been operated by Georgia Tech from 1974 - 1987. Data from 1974 - 1987 are available in the CEDAR Database. The contact person is Roger G. Roper (roper@eas.gatech.edu; Tel: (404) 894-3892, Fax: (404) 853-0232; Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340). Acknowledgements: The Georgia Tech Radio Meteor Wind Facility was initially funded by the Georgia Institute of Technology. From 1971 to 1990, it was supported by the National Science Foundation.

dum (1620) are meteor wind radar data from Durham, USA (43.12N, 70.94W; 53.5 magN), which has been operated by the University of New Hampshire since 1974. Monthly averages from 1978-1982, which were combined into a single year average, are in the CEDAR Database as well as data from LTCS-1, 2 and 4. The contact person is Ronald Clark (ron.clark@unh.edu; Tel: (603) 862-1033, Fax: (603) 862-2030; University of New Hampshire, Kingsbury-ECE, Durham, NH 03824). Acknowledgements: The University of New Hampshire Meteor Radar system is operated by the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH with support from the National Science Foundation.

pla (2200) are ST with MEDAC radar data from Platteville, USA (40.13N, 104.5W; 49.1 magN), which has been operated by the University of Colorado on a campaign basis since 1988. Data for the LTCS-2 campaign are in the Database. The contact person is Susan Avery (susan.avery@colorado.edu; Tel (303)492-7427, FAX (303)492-2199; University of Colorado, Campus Box 425, Boulder, CO 80309). Acknowledgements: The Platteville ST radar is operated by NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. The MEDAC system is operated by the University of Colorado with support from the National Science Foundation.


Airglow Imagers and All-Sky Cameras

Brightness is the basic parameter for imagers. None of the imager data are in digital form in the Database, and so they do not appear in the inventory listing. The data reside with the contact person. Usually, only a catalogue of dates is available, but there are video tapes at the Database from the imager at Millstone Hill. References for imagers and all-sky cameras are

Fukui, K., J. Buchau, and C. E. Valladeres, Convection of polar cap patches observed at Qaanaaq, Greenland during the winter of 1989-1990, Radio Sci., 29, 231-248, 1994.
Mendillo, M., J. Baumgardner, J. Aarons, J. Foster, and J. Klobuchar, Coordinated optical and radio studies of ionospheric disturbances: Initial results from Millstone Hill, Annales Geophysicae, 5A, 543-550, 1987.
Valladares, C. E., H. C. Carlson Jr., and K. Fukui, Interplanetary magnetic field dependency of stable sun-aligned polar cap arcs, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 6247-6272, 1994.

usi (7190) is the code for the Utah State University CCD imager. From Oct 6-23, 1993 during the Aloha'93 campaign, the USU imager measured OH, O2(0,1), OI, and Na nightglow emissions over Hawaii (20N, 155W; 20.6 magN). These data are available from Michael Taylor (taylor@psi.sci.sdl.usu.edu). Acknowledgements: The Utah State University CCD Imager is operated by the Utah State University with support from the National Science Foundation.

mhi (7200, 7240) are the codes for the Boston University Mobile Ionospheric Observatory (MIO) imaging system (7200) which ran from July 1987 to June 1989, and the CEDAR Imager (7240) which started in September 1989. Both imagers were/are located at Millstone Hill (42.6N, 71.5W; 53.1 magN). Video tapes of images from 1987 to 1994 are available at the Database. The Millstone Hill Imager Listing gives the exact dates along with an indication of whether aurora or red arcs were seen. The original data and other periods can be obtained from Michael Mendillo (mendillo@bu.edu, www.buimaging.com). Acknowledgements: The CEDAR Imager is operated at Millstone Hill by Boston University with support from the National Science Foundation.

qac (7580), lnc (7591, 7600) and noc (7610) are the codes for the all-sky cameras at Qaanaaq, Greenland (7580) (77.5N, 69.2W; 85.5 magN), at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (7591) (78.2N, 15.4E; 75.1 magN), at Ny Alesund, Svalbard (7600) (78.9N, 12.0E; 76.0 magN), and at Nord, Greenland (7610) (81.60N, 16.6W; 80.8 magN). These all-sky cameras are operated by the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base in Massachusetts. The camera at Longyearbyen was moved to Ny Alesund in February 1984. All the film files are available from Katsura Fukui (fukui@plh.af.mil). The All-Sky Camera Listing gives the dates of the film files from Qaanaaq and Ny Alesund (1983-1991), and from Nord (1989-1991). A 'D' or an 'F' next to the Qaanaaq listing indicates if there were digisonde or Fabry-Perot data available in the CEDAR Database. Acknowledgements: The Qaanaaq and Nord all-sky cameras are operated by the Danish Meteorological Institute and owned by the US Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base. The Ny Alesund all-sky camera is operated by the University of Oslo and owned by the US Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base.


Models

The CEDAR Database has information on some theoretical models available for community use and source code for several empirical models.


Theoretical Models

A number of modellers have indicated that they would be willing to make their theoretical models available to others. Interested users should contact the modeller and either work in close cooperation with the modeller on selected studies, or use the model themselves. Two of these models, AMIE and TIGCM, have also contributed output to the CEDAR Database, which are described in [#doutmod Large Model Output].

AMIE: The Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure relies on relatively large amounts of data to produce electric fields and conductances. Inquiries can be directed to Arthur Richmond (richmond@ucar.edu) or to Barbara Emery (emery@ucar.edu). There are a few outside users who learned how to run AMIE while visiting NCAR.

CTIM and CTIP: The Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model and Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere model are global models of the thermosphere, ionosphere (CTIM) and plasmasphere (CTIP) above 80 km. Those interested in doing collaborations on scientific investigations using CTIM or CTIP please contact Tim Fuller-Rowell (tjfr@sec.noaa.gov; Tel (303) 497-5764, FAX (303) 497-3645; Space Environment Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303). References for CTIM and CTIP are:

Fuller-Rowell, T. J., M. V. Codrescu, H. Rishbeth, R. J. Moffett and S. Quegan, Response of the thermosphere and ionosphere to geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3896-3914, 1994.
Fuller-Rowell, T. J., D. Rees, S. Quegan, R. J. Moffett, and M. V. Codrescu, A Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (CTIM), The STEP Handbook, edited by R. W. Schunk, Utah State University, 217-238, 1996.
Millward, G. H., R. J. Moffett, S. Quegan, and T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere model (CTIP), The STEP Handbook, edited by R. W. Schunk, Utah State University, 239-280, 1996.
Millward, G. H., H. Rishbeth, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Aylward, S. Quegan and R. J. Moffett, Ionospheric F2 region seasonal and semi-annual variations, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 5149-5156, 1995.

FLIP: The Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model solves for plasma densities and temperatures along flux tubes. The executable code is available from Philip Richards (richards@cspar.uah.edu, Computer Science Department, University of Alabama at Huntsville, Research Institute C-10, Huntsville, AL 35899). A reference for the FLIP model is

Richards, P. G., An improved algorithm for determining neutral winds from the height of the F2 peak electron density, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 17,839-17,846, 1991.

GLOW: A thermospheric airglow model developed by Stan Solomon (solomon@tethys.colorado.edu, University of Colorado, LASP, Campus Box 392, Boulder, CO 80309). A reference is

Solomon, S. C. and V. J. Abreu, The 630 nm Dayglow, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 6817-6824, 1989.

TIGCM, TIEGCM and TIMEGCM: The Thermosphere/Ionosphere General Circulation Model (TIGCM) has been expanded to solve also for the electrodynamics (TIEGCM) in low and mid latitudes, and extended to the mesosphere (TIMEGCM). Requests for generic conditions or simulations of specific periods may be directed to Raymond Roble (roble@ucar.edu) or to Barbara Emery (emery@ucar.edu).

TING: The Thermosphere-Ionosphere Nested Grid model started with the NCAR TIGCM and was expanded to work on a nested grid by Wenbin Wang, (wenbin@engin.umich.edu, Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2143), Timothy Killeen and Alan Burns. The nested grid allows the medium scale features of the auroral oval and the electron density trough to be modelled more accurately. A reference is

Wang, W., T. K. Killeen, A. G. Burns and R. G. Roble, A high-resolution, three dimensional, time dependent, nested grid model of the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 61, 385-397, 1997.

VSH: The Vector Spherical Harmonic (VSH) produces thermospheric (110-1500 km) global neutral winds based on TIGCM runs. Source code is available from the University of Michigan through the developer Timothy Killeen (tkilleen@umich.edu, Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2143). A reference is

Killeen, T. L., R. G. Roble and N. W. Spencer, A computer model of global thermospheric winds and temperatures, Adv. Space Res., Vol. 7, No. 10, 207-215, 1987.

Empirical Models

The source code for several empirical models is available from the CEDAR Database. Users should acknowledge the CEDAR Database and use at least one of the given references in their bibliographies. All source code is in Fortran, which was not always the original code for the models. In particular, all the electric potential models were revised to accomodate a very similar calling program.

APEX: The APEX geomagnetic field model includes the IGRF/DGRF and full calculation or table look-ups to find the apex magnetic coordinates. References are

Richmond, A. D., Ionospheric electrodynamics using magnetic apex coordinates, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47, 191-212, 1995.
VanZandt, T. E., W. L. Clark and J. M. Warnock, Magnetic apex coordinates: A magnetic coordinate system for the ionospheric F2 layer, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 2406-2411, 1972.

CHIU: Chiu model electron densities are returned for input geographic latitude, longitude, height and time. A reference is

Chiu, Y.T., An improved phenomenological model of ionospheric density,J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 37, 1563-1570, 1975.

E FIELD: This model gives quiet-day ionospheric electrostatic potential and E X B drifts at 300 km for magnetic latitudes below 60 degrees during polar minimum conditions. The reference is

Richmond, A. D., M. Blanc, B. A. Emery, R. H. Wand, B. G. Fejer, R. F. Woodman, S. Ganguly, P. Amayenc, R. A. Behnke, C. Calderon, and J. V. Evans, An empirical model of quiet-day ionospheric electric fields at middle and low latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 4658-4664, 1980.

HMR: These are electric potentials and fields defined by Rich and Maynard (1989) from patterns described by Heppner and Maynard (1987). The references are

Heppner, J. P. and N. C. Maynard, Empirical high-latitude electric field models, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4467-4489, 1987.
Rich, F. J. and N. C. Maynard, Consequences of using simple analytical functions for the high-latitude convection electric field, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 3687-3701, 1989.

HPI: These are tables and interpolations of the NOAA satellite auroral electron flux, Pedersen and Hall conductance, and characteristic energy based on the Hemispheric Power Index (HPI) described in Fuller-Rowell and Evans (1987). An additional table of the approximate Maxwellian energy based on the Hall/Pedersen ratio is also included. Conjugacy is assumed. The reference is

Fuller-Rowell, T. J. and D. S. Evans, Height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivity patterns inferred from the TIROS-NOAA satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7606-7618, 1987.

HWM: The Horizontal Wind Model (HWM93 or HWM90) gives neutral horizontal winds for input geographic latitude, longitude, height and time. References are

Hedin, A. E., N. W. Spencer, and T. L. Killeen, Empirical global model of upper thermosphere winds based on Atmosphere and Dynamics Explorer satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 9959-9978, 1988.
Hedin, A. E., M. A. Biondi, R. G. Burnside, G. Hernandez, R. M. Johnson, T. L. Killeen, C. Mazaudier, J. W. Meriwether, J. E. Salah, R. J. Sica, R. W. Smith, N. W. Spencer, V. B. Wickwar, and T. S. Virdi, Revised global model of thermosphere winds using satellite and ground based observations, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 7657-7688, 1991.

IRI: The IRI 1990 model, and Version 9 (1986), returns neutral temperatures and ionospheric parameters Ne, Te, Ti, and ion composition for input geographic latitude, longitude, height and time. A reference is

Bilitza, D., International reference ionosphere: Recent developments, Radio. Sci., 21, 343-346, 1986.

IZMEM: Electric potentials and fields defined by Papitashvili et al. (1994). The reference is

Papitashvili, V. O., B. A. Belov, D. S. Faermark, Ya. I. Feldstein, S. A. Golyshev, L. I. Gromova, and A. E. Levitin, Electric potential patterns in the northern and southern polar regions parameterized by the interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 13,251-13,262, 1994.

MAGFLD: IGRF/DGRF geomagnetic field model for 1965-1995.

MH: Electric potentials and fields parameterized by HPI and Millstone Hill (MH) data described by Foster et al (1986) or parameterized by IMF using Millstone and Sondrestrom data (Foster, 1987). The references are

Foster, J. C., Radar deduced models of the convection electric field, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Quanititative Modeling of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes, editors Y. Kamide and R. A. Wolf, Kyoto, Japan, 71-76, 1987.
Foster, J. C., J. M. Holt, R. G. Musgrove, and D. S. Evans, Ionospheric convection associated with discrete levels of particle precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 13, 656-659, 1986.

MSIS: The MSIS 1990 (or 1983 or 1986) model returns neutral temperature and composition values for input geographic latitude, longitude, height and time. References are

Hedin, A.E., A revised thermospheric model based on mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter data: MSIS-83, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 10170-10188, 1983.
Hedin, A.E., MSIS-86 thermospheric model, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4649-4662, 1987.

WEIMER: Electric potentials and fields that are described by Weimer (1996). The reference is

Weimer, D. R., A flexible, IMF dependant model of high-latitude electric potentials having "space weather" applications, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 2549-2552,1996.

Some of these models and others are available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSCD) at http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/nssdc/nssdc_home.html. Some references about the available models and application software are

Bilitza, D., Solar-terrestrial models and application software, National Space Science Data Center Report, NSSDC 90-19, Greenbelt, MD, July, 1990.
Bilitza, D., Solar-terrestrial models at the National Space Science Data Center, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 53, 1207-1211, 1991.
Bilitza, D., Solar-terrestrial models and application software, Planet. Space Sci. 40, 541-579, 1992.

Obtaining Data Copies on Various Storage Media

Using the [/documents/datareq.form.html data request web form] both large and small amounts of data can be requested. For smaller amounts of data, a computer printout can be requested. Simple plots of time series, height profiles or contours as function of height and time of selected data can also be requested. The database personnel can also prepare small data files (no greater than 5 MB) for transfer via electronic mail.

For larger amounts of data, magnetic tape or 8 mm video/data tape (like Exabyte) copies are the most efficient means of transfer to the user's home institution. Also available are the lower volume storage media of Mac or PC floppies. A popular means of transfer for those with internet access is ftp transfer of files up to about 500 MB which are put in the archive/cedar or pub/contrib directories of anonymous ftp. A standard packed integer binary format was adopted to facilitate data transfer which was expanded to include a character version. All data are stored in the binary format, but many users prefer data in the character version. Both versions are described in the [/cgi-bin/cedar_file_access.pl?filename=documents/cedar.fmt.ps CEDAR Database Format], and access routines for some computers are available upon request.


Visiting NCAR

Scientists are welcome to visit NCAR in order to work with the Database and interact with NCAR scientists. Desk space and a computer account can normally be provided with advance notice. There are a limited amount of funds available for short term visits. NCAR also has visitor and fellowship programs for scientists and students interested in a longer visit. Contact Arthur Richmond (richmond@ucar.edu) for further information about these programs.


Programs

A number of programs have been developed to manipulate, analyze and display the data in the CEDAR Database. Several of these programs can compare the data with some of the empirical models.


Data Retrieval

web: The CEDARWEB interface Data Services menu is used to search and retrieve data.

madrigal: The madrigal software includes several utilities designed for interactive generation, updating, editing and querying of converted NCAR CEDAR format files. Fortran software is available for custom program development. The libraries include the IGRF/DGRF and MSIS models, coordinate computation/conversion and several other convenience routines. Along with the subroutine libraries are a few example programs (source and makefile(s)) which can be copied, compiled and linked with the madrigal subroutine libraries. Specific details can be found in the on-line man pages on cedar.hao.ucar.edu Users should first issue the command source ~madrigal/prep and then man madrigal on cedar for a detailed overview.


Data Set Preparation

GDAT: User specified space and/or time criteria are applied to user specified parameters in a binary data set, selecting and printing in a flat ascii file the time and parameter values. Missing space parameters (e.g. the altitude and geographic latitude and longitude of the measurement volume can be calculated from the range and the azimuth and elevation angles), Nmax, Hmax and the third of Te, Ti, Tr (Te/Ti) may be computed automatically.

IS2ASC (and ASC2IS): Converts data from (to) the standard binary format into (from) the character format.

READTP: Produces a listing of a selected data set.


Plotting and Printing Out Data

BINHNT: Bins any data base parameter in time and height with user selected bin sizes and weighting. A contour plot of the resulting array is created. Examples are in Summary Plots for the ISR in the CEDAR Database web site at http://www.hao.ucar.edu/public/research/tiso/cedar/cedar.html. The array plus statistical parameters can be saved as character files.

GETNDCS: Lists and plots user-selected indices from those in the CEDAR Database (Dst, Kp, ap, Ap, solar 10.7 cm flux, sunspot number, AE indices, IMF parameters, solar wind parameters, and hemispheric power input estimates from the NOAA satellites, but excluding estimates of the magnetic latitude of the equatorward auroral boundary at midnight from DMSP satellites). Additional parameters such as the cross-tail potential drop derived from various indices within a specified time period are also found. Values can be returned as ascii files.

PLTVST: Plots data points as a function of time. Points can be selected by bounds on height, azimuth, elevation, range, geographic latitude, geographic longitude, or magnetic latitude. Multiple parameters at multiple heights from multiple radars can be plotted in the same frame. Plotted values can be returned in a character file.

PLTVSH: Plots data points as a function of height. Multiple parameters at multiple times from multiple radars can be plotted on the same height scale. Can plot Chiu, IRI or MSIS model values. (Example in [cat.toctext.html#FIGURE3 Figure 3].) Plotted values are returned in a character file.

PLTCYC: Plots antenna(e) motion sequence and generates a listing of times azimuth and elevation angles.


Ancillary Information

PARCODS: The [/catalog/parcods.html Parameter Codes List] is a list of all parameter codes used in the database sorted by code number and by short [/catalog/parcods.html#NAME name].

KINST: The instrument names file contains a list of all measurement site codes used in the Database.

AKAVSNS: The a.k.a. VSN's file contains a list of dataset names and a brief description of their contents including any caveats specific to the dataset. Geophysical indices files are also identified here.


Support Utilities

TIME SUBROUTINES: A number of simple time subroutines are available to obtain times from any logical record (GTIME), calculate a time difference (TIMDIF), a new time (NEWTIM), or convert to or from day numbers to month and day (CVT2MD,CVT2DN).

GSPACE: This computes a standard set of spatial parameters for any logical data record in the CEDAR Database format.

CNVRNH: Using a spherical Earth assumption, this routine converts spatial parameters, such as azimuth, elevation and range to latitude, longitude and height.


--Revised 18 June 2004 by Peter Fox